Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area

Geographical characteristics: more than 80% of the region is located in the permafrost zone. The region is subject to a higher projected temperature increase due to its proximity to the Arctic Ocean. The coastal zones are characterized by soil erosion due to permafrost degradation, especially in areas of the Kara Sea, which washes the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.

Economic risks:

- The region will incur high financial costs to overcome the negative consequences of permafrost degradation compared to other permafrost regions - 4% of the annual GRP. By 2050, the costs will be US $52.33 billion.

- The greatest risks will be incurred by the oil and gas infrastructure (pipelines) due to an increase in the seasonally thawed layer (by more than 0.57 m by 2050) and ground subsidence (14 cm by 2050). At the same time, the region is in 1st place in terms of natural gas production. The cost of critical infrastructure in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area is 66% of the total cost of this type of infrastructure in the permafrost region of Russia due to the high development of the oil and gas sector in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.

- High risks of destabilizing economic activity in Novy Urengoy and Nadym, including as a result of decreased bearing capacity.

- By 2050. 99.8% of buildings will be affected by permafrost thawing.

Social risks: The share of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North is 28.57% of the total population. Indigenous peoples currently have insufficient knowledge of adaptation to climate change and permafrost thawing, even though their economic activities are mostly of a traditional nature and depend on permafrost conditions. The importance of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North and the risks of climate change and permafrost thawing are recognized at the UN level (the 2015 Paris Agreement) and at the interregional level (the permanent participation of indigenous groups in the activities of the Arctic Council). The peoples living on the coast of the Kara Sea are forced to migrate as a result of shoreline retreat caused by soil erosion. Climate migration or climate refugee indigenous peoples is another current agenda at the international level in which it is possible to integrate (in 2015, the first lawsuit was filed with the UN Human Rights Committee over a host state's failure to grant asylum based on the negative effects of climate change threatening the right to life in the country of origin, in 2020 the first decision to ban removal from a highly climate-endangered country was issued).

Research interest: Study of gas release funnels in Yamal, Study of methane emissions on climate change, Study of the impact of permafrost degradation on infrastructure (residential, public, oil and gas).

Conclusion: In terms of economics, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area is one of the most vulnerable permafrost regions. The region is of both research and social interest in the form of a large proportion of vulnerable indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, whose rights protection and adaptation issues are promising to be promoted on international platforms.