Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Geographical characteristics: more than 85% of the region is located in the permafrost zone. In the north, the region is subject to a higher projected temperature increase due to its proximity to the Arctic Ocean. 40% of the territory is exposed to significant negative effects as a result of thawing permafrost. Soil erosion as a result of permafrost degradation is typical of coastal areas.

Economic risks:

- The region will incur high financial costs to overcome the negative consequences of permafrost degradation compared to other permafrost regions - 3.7% of the annual GRP. By 2050, the region will have the second highest expenditure incurred from permafrost melting at US $21.26 billion.

- The greatest increase in soil temperature compared to other permafrost regions (by 3.87°C by 2050) and, as a result, severe ground subsidence (13 cm by 2050) lead to damage to buildings, the total cost of which is at least 2.5 times higher than the cost of all potentially vulnerable buildings in other permafrost regions – US  $25.88 billion.

- Infrastructure deformation risks are high, and 65% of the region's infrastructure is expected to be damaged or destroyed by 2050 at a total cost of  US $10.93 billion.

Social risks: The Arctic zone is home to more than 50% of all the representatives of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North of Yakutia, they account for 16% of the total number of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East in the Russian Federation. As in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, the livelihoods of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North living in rural areas are affected by permafrost thawing, which causes the destruction of structures, infrastructure, and pastures, a reduction in the area for new constructions, and a reduction in the area and opportunities for economic (agricultural) activities.

Research interest: studying the spread of thermokarst landforms as a result of permafrost thawing;

research on restoration of highly productive pastures in the Arctic;

research on the effects of methane emissions on forest fires.

Conclusion: Yakutia's infrastructure and structures are highly susceptible to damage as a result of permafrost thawing. Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area and Yakutia are the two most economically vulnerable regions in terms of the effects of permafrost thawing, as they are important resource producing regions. Yakutia is also a promising region for advancing the agenda of protecting the rights and adaptation of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North at the international level.