Norilsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory)

Geographic characteristics: the second largest city entirely located in a continuous permafrost zone. In Norilsk, permafrost degradation occurs due to climate change and is enhanced by direct anthropogenic impacts (e.g. undetected leaks in sewage and water pipes lead to decreased the bearing power of soil).

Economic risks:

- Significant reduction in the bearing capacity of permafrost has been proven: by 2000, the bearing capacity had decreased by 10% compared to 1960.

- By 2006, at least 250 industrial structures had significant deformations and 40 residential buildings were demolished as a result of permafrost degradation.

- More than 60% of the total costs of the Krasnoyarsk Territory are related to the potential damage to residential buildings as a result of their high susceptibility to damage caused by permafrost degradation, and are attributable to Norilsk and Dudinka.

Social risks: There are high risks to public health as a result of toxic substances from the Norilsk Combine's waste accumulators containing sulfates, chlorides, copper, nickel, and other toxic substances. Another risk is the destruction of a significant number of residential structures.

Research interest: an interdisciplinary assessment of the extent to which climate change and other direct anthropogenic factors influence permafrost degradation in urban centers, using Norilsk as an example.

Conclusions: Like Yakutsk, Norilsk is a promising city for permafrost preservation activities, since its degradation in this location depends not only on climatic, but also on direct anthropogenic factors. Taking into account the interaction of these factors among themselves will make it possible to replicate successful practices in other cities and settlements in the permafrost zone whose infrastructure and buildings are vulnerable to permafrost degradation.