Purpose: maintenance of the specified temperature regime of permafrost soils and elimination of unforeseen heat losses under the foundations of various structures (reservoirs up to 50 000 m3, solid municipal waste landfills, chemical reagents parks, etc.); buildings (gas and oil pumping stations, industrial buildings, residential complexes, public and civil buildings); roads and railways.
The system consists of two main elements:
- Horizontal cooling pipes, located in the ground of the basement. They are used to circulate refrigerant and then freeze the ground;
- condenser unit located on the surface of the ground. In the condenser unit due to natural convection and gravity there is condensation of refrigerant vapors and its further pumping through the system.
Principle of operation: ground heat transfer to the refrigerant takes place in the cooling pipes. The refrigerant changes from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. The vapor moves towards the condenser unit, where it condenses into a liquid phase, releasing heat through the fins into the atmosphere. The cooled and condensed refrigerant flows into the evaporator system again and repeats the cycle of motion.
The project can be implemented both at large industrial facilities and at strategic facilities of socially significant infrastructure.
Analysis and development of a normative legal act on permafrost protection
At present, at the federal level there is no unified normative legal act fixing the legal regulation of permafrost protection, there is no detailed list of the state authorities responsible for permafrost protection, and liability for the damage caused to the permafrost is not provided for, rather than for the environment as a subject of environmental legislation in general. In the context of further development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, which increases the negative anthropogenic impact on permafrost, which contributes to its melting and accelerates climate change, a legal framework for permafrost protection should be developed, including for the planned recreation of a monitoring system in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. This issue has already been brought up for discussion, for example in 2020. Nikolai Nikolaev, Chairman of the Committee on Natural Resources, Property and Land Matters, expressed his willingness to discuss the draft law on permafrost protection proposed by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and approved the idea of creating a working group to prepare a draft law on permafrost protection, on improving the regulatory framework for hydraulic structures safety and on legislative measures for the mining of technogenic deposits. A proposal to initiate the Federal Law "On the Protection and Rational Use of Permafrost" was also put forward in 2017 at the VIII International Forum «Ecology». In 2021, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment prepared the draft law that establishes the legal framework for the state system of permafrost monitoring by amending the Federal Law "On Environmental Protection" and the Federal Law "On Hydrometeorological Service," which are to come into force in 2023. The draft law introduces the concepts of permafrost condition and degradation, the obligation of authorities to disclose information about the condition of permafrost and measures to prevent the negative consequences of its degradation, and also includes state monitoring of permafrost condition into a unified state environmental monitoring system.
The project proposes:
1. Analyze the draft Federal Law "On the Protection and Rational Use of Permafrost", developed by the Parliamentary Association "Far East and Transbaikalia" in 2017.
2. Analyze the draft Federal Law "On Amendments to the Federal Law 'On Environmental Protection' and Article 1 of the Federal Law 'On Hydrometeorological Service'" proposed by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in terms of creating a state system for monitoring the condition of permafrost
3. Analyze regional normative legal acts on the legal regulation of permafrost protection: the Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) "On Permafrost Protection in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" of 2018.
4. To study international legal and foreign national legal acts on permafrost protection: Law of the Argentine Republic 26.639 on minimum standards for preservation of glaciers and periglacial environment (in Spanish).
5. Conduct a legal analysis to determine whether legislation on permafrost protection is an integral part of environmental legislation (Federal Law "On Environmental Protection" of 2002, as proposed by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment) or is an independent branch of legislation (similar to legislation on limiting greenhouse gases).
6. Consider options for international legal cooperation between Russia and the Arctic states (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States) in a bilateral or multilateral format.
7. Consider the possibility and expediency of adopting acts of other legal force: Decree or Order of the President of the Russian Federation, Decree or Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, Order of the Ministries of the Russian Federation, etc.
8. Prepare an opinion on the type of regulatory legal act best suited for the legal protection of permafrost, on the main provisions of the act, which include listing responsible state authorities, fixing responsibility for causing damage to permafrost, requirements for mandatory monitoring, the procedure for carrying it out, etc.